# Roman Numbers - Laws, Chart | What Are Roman Numerals?

When you think about numericals nowadays, the first of all that pops in your head is the decimal system we utilize daily. This system, however, is not the single approach to represent numericals. There are multiple methods utilized by distinct cultures around the world that use all sorts of characters. One such approach is Roman numerals.

Since ancient Rome, Roman numerals have been a way of expressing numericals utilizing a combination of characters from the Latin alphabet. It remained during the Middle Ages and the modern day, to the extend it is still taught in school, which is possibly why you have stumbled upon this post.

Now, we are going to look at Roman numbers, what they are, how they operate, and how to change Roman numerals to ordinary numbers.

## What Are Roman Numerals?

First, let's take a quick look at the history of Roman numbers. Roman numericals were initially used by the ancient Romans, as you might have guessed from the name. They were used in multiple aspects of the Roman world, including trade, architecture, and even warfare.

Nowadays, its main use is primarily due to artistic reasons. You may have seen Roman numbers as hour marks on a clock, chapter numbers, page numbering, copyright dates, or in film sequels (e.g., The Godfather Part III).

The Roman numeral system consist of numericals utilizing a blend of letters from the Latin alphabet. Characters are combined to form groups that represent numbers. Seven characters, I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, depicts the numericals 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000, separately. You can then blend these numericals to represent any value in the number system.

### Meaning of the Roman numerals

While the decimal system is based on the concept of place value, Roman numbers are established on cumulative and subtractive principles. This means that a Roman numeral's numeric values are based on the sum of the values of its individual parts. Another major difference is that the decimal system is based on the number 10. In contrast, Roman numbers are founded on the numericals 1 (I), 5 (V) and 10 (X).

### Examples

Let's take a look at a few practical examples of Roman numbers.

The electronic game street fighter IV was released in arcades as early as 2008. If we take a look at the numericals in the title, we see it consist of a V in it. This is due to the fact number 5 in Roman number is represented by the letter V. Preceded by it is an I, or 1. Hence, we grasp that this is the 4th entry in the series utilizing the characteristics we will discuss down the article.

The movie Star Wars Episode VI was the last to enter the original trilogy. Observing the value portrayed, it comprises a V ensued by an I. Thus, we will add a 1 to the value of V, which is 5, letting us know this Star Wars film is the 6th entry in the franchise.

## Roman Numerals Chart

To read Roman numerals, it is crucial to know the numeric value of all the characters. To help make this function easy, here is a chart with every Latin characters with assigned number values.

Decimal Number | Roman Numeral |

1 | I |

2 | II |

3 | III |

4 | IV |

5 | V |

6 | VI |

7 | VII |

8 | VIII |

9 | IX |

10 | X |

11 | XI |

12 | XII |

13 | XIII |

14 | XIV |

15 | XV |

16 | XVI |

17 | XVII |

18 | XVIII |

19 | XIX |

20 | XX |

21 | XXI |

22 | XXII |

23 | XXIII |

24 | XXIV |

25 | XXV |

26 | XXVI |

27 | XXVII |

28 | XXVIII |

29 | XXIX |

30 | XXX |

31 | XXXI |

32 | XXXII |

33 | XXXIII |

34 | XXXIV |

35 | XXXV |

36 | XXXVI |

37 | XXXVII |

38 | XXXVIII |

39 | XXXIX |

40 | XL |

41 | XLI |

42 | XLII |

43 | XLIII |

44 | XLIV |

45 | XLV |

46 | XLVI |

47 | XLVII |

48 | XLVIII |

49 | XLIX |

50 | L |

51 | LI |

52 | LII |

53 | LIII |

54 | LIV |

55 | LV |

56 | LVI |

57 | LVII |

58 | LVIII |

59 | LIX |

60 | LX |

61 | LXI |

62 | LXII |

63 | LXIII |

64 | LXIV |

65 | LXV |

66 | LXVI |

67 | LXVII |

68 | LXVIII |

69 | LXIX |

70 | LXX |

71 | LXXI |

72 | LXXII |

73 | LXXIII |

74 | LXXIV |

75 | LXXV |

76 | LXXVI |

77 | LXXVII |

78 | LXXVIII |

79 | LXXIX |

80 | LXXX |

81 | LXXXI |

82 | LXXXII |

83 | LXXXIII |

84 | LXXXIV |

85 | LXXXV |

86 | LXXXVI |

87 | LXXXVII |

88 | LXXXVIII |

89 | LXXXIX |

90 | XC |

91 | XCI |

92 | XCII |

93 | XCIII |

94 | XCIV |

95 | XCV |

96 | XCVI |

97 | XCVII |

98 | XCVIII |

99 | XCIX |

100 | C |

200 | CC |

300 | CCC |

400 | CD |

500 | D |

600 | DC |

700 | DCC |

800 | DCCC |

900 | CM |

1000 | M |

## How to Convert from Roman Numbers to Everyday Numbers

Now that we have the convenient table of Roman numerals, we can use that data to change numbers back and forth promptly. Following these steps, you will convert these values any time you want.

### Steps to Change Roman numerals to Regular Numericals

To change Roman numerals to decimal numbers, we will use the linear and subtractive principles we went through.

Start at the leftmost Roman numeral in the group.

If the Roman number to its right is lesser in value, then add the two values.

If the Roman number to its right is higher in value, subtract the Roman number on the right out of the Roman numbers to its left.

All you must do now is replicate this method until you arrive at the end of the Roman numeral group.

Let's see how you can convert Roman numerals with a few examples.

### Example 1

Study the Roman numeral LXXVI.

Begin with the leftmost Roman numeral, that is L or 50.

The Roman numeral to its right is X or 10. Considering 10 is less than 50, we add the both values and get 60.

The Roman numeral to the right of X is X again. We add 10 to 60 and find 70.

The Roman number to the right of X is V or 5. Considering 5 is less than 70, we add the both values and the result is 75.

The Roman numeral to the right of V is I or 1. Since 1 is less than 75, we add the both values and we find 76.

We stop here at the end of the Roman number group. Therefore, the Roman numeral LXXVI is equal to the decimal number 76.

### Example 2

Take into account the Roman numeral MCMIII.

Start at the leftmost Roman numeral, that is M or 1000.

The Roman number to its right is C or 100. Considering 100 is less than 1000, and it is followed by an M, this value means 900.

The Roman numeral to the right of M is I or 1. Since 1 is less than 1900, we add the both values and the result is 1901.

The Roman number to the right of I is I again. We add 1 to 1901 and we find 1902.

The Roman number to the right of I is I again. We sum 1 to 1902 and the answer is 1903.

Given that we have arrived the end of the Roman numeral group, we halt here with our answer. Therefore, the Roman number MCMIII is as same as the regular number 1903.

With this information and a some practice, you will transform Roman numerals to regular numbers like a pro!

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